Palestinian demonstrators in Syria also tried to break through a border fence at the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights. A Syrian official and witnesses say Israeli troops opened fire, killing four and wounding at least 45.
Clashes have erupted at protests along the border with the Hamas-ruled Gaza Strip, with Palestinian officials saying there are at least 60 wounded there.
Outside Jerusalem, medical sources say clashes wounded more than 100 when soldiers fired tear gas and rubber bullets to break up a group of demonstrators throwing stones.
The Palestinian protests are marking the Naqba, or the "catastrophe." It describes the uprooting of Palestinian families at the time of Israel's creation in 1948.
More than 700,000 Palestinians are estimated to have fled or been forced to leave their homes during the war that followed Israel's declaration of statehood in 1948.