We conclude our first hour by examining the history of the phrase "cultural melting pot". John Taylor Gatto cites its origin as the work of Henry Ford, whose efforts to promote Americanism were not limited to making English teaching compulsory for his workers. Another of his efforts was choreographing a performance which featured a large and prominently marked black 'melting pot' in which immigrants in national dress were transformed into flag waving uniformed American workers. Using the personal defense weapon (a hand-held weapon more dangerous than a sub-machine gun) as an example, we consider how a language embodies certain ideas, and how attractive they are to many in the 'under-developed world' once they have internalised the hierarchy which places US English and associated ideas at the top.
In our second hour, linguist Vicente Rafael speaks in 2008 on Translation in Wartime, on the relation between language and empire, scrutinizing political rhetoric to expose the underlying attitude of linguistic hierarchy. He reviews the history of the US as a polyglot nation, its creation of a unique and simplified form of English, and of the public perception of translation as a labour of rendering intelligible the same basic ideas as are found in US English. He concludes by reviewing the difficult position of translators in Iraq, helping the occupying power.